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Glossary
 
 
 
  Glossary

AOX = Adsorbable organic halogen compounds, reported as the total amount of chlorine bound to organic compounds in wastewater.
Such compounds occur naturally, but are also formed in conjunction with the bleaching of chemical pulp. Excess AOX must be limited to a level where it has no environmental impact.

CHEMICAL PULP - Pulp in which wood fibres have been separated by chemical, rather than mechanical, means.

CO2= Carbon dioxide. In the context of paper manufacturing, fossil carbon dioxide is generated from the combustion of fossil fuels during the production of pulp and paper. Increased amounts of carbon dioxide and other "greenhouse gases" in the atmosphere are gradually reducing the radiation of heat from the surface of our planet. Carbon dioxide is naturally produced trough the biological degradation of organic substances, but also through the combustion of fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas. CO2 contributes to the greenhouse effect.

COD = Chemical Oxygen Demand. The amount of oxygen consumed in complete chemical oxidation of matter present in wastewater.
Organic substances released from industrial or agricultural activities consume oxygen in water during degradation. Low oxygen content in fresh and sea water can have an adverse effect on plant and animal life. Lignin from pulp production cannot be broken down by bacteria, but it is included in the COD.

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM - - part of a general management system, consisting of organisation structures, planning functions, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources for developing, implementing, fulfilling, analysing and maintaining a company 's environmental policy.

EUTROPHICATION - Refers to the intensified growth of organisms in water, caused for example, by the presence of easily degradable organic matter or nutrients.

FOREST CERTIFICATION - - A declaration of successful completion of a system which takes into account the environmental aspects of forestry. The main globally recognised certification schemes are the PEFC (Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes) and the FSC (Forest Stewardship Council).

MECHANICAL PULP - Pulp consisting of fibres separated entirely by mechanical rather than chemical means.

N = Total amount of organic and inorganic nitrogen.
P = Total amount of organic and inorganic phosphorus.
Nitrogen and phosphorus are chemical elements essential for plant and animal life. Both substances occur naturally in wood and are often added as nutrients for the bacteria in biological treatment plants. Excessive levels released into water can cause nutrient enrichment (eutrophication) and suppress normal oxygen supply.

NITROGEN - An element. A high nitrogen content in water, together with phosphorus and organic substances, can lead to increased biological activity in water, known as eutrophication.

NOx = Nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2).
These gases are produced during combustion. In moist air, nitrogen oxides can form nitric acid which, in turn, is precipitated as "acid rain". This nitrogen-containing rain also has a fertilising effect (eutrophication).

PHOSPHORUS - High phosphorus contents, combined with nitrogen and organic substances, can cause increased biological activity in water, known as eutrophication.

PIGMENT - Is finely ground inorganic mineral material, such as clay or calcium carbonate, used as a filler or as a coating agent in papermaking.

Purchased electricity consumption = amount of purchased electricity per produced ton of paper.

SOLID WASTE= solid waste landfilled (on site and/or elsewhere).
Organic and inorganic waste materials are defined, calculated and declared as completely dry matter. If not properly managed and controlled, leaks from landfills can contaminate ground water and organic material in landfills can decompose into methane which is emitted contributing to global warming.

SO2 =Sulphur dioxide.
This gas is generated by burning fuel containing sulphur or sulphur compounds. Coal and oil contain sulphur. SO2 is also an important substance in the chemical pulping process which is recovered in the process and reused. SO2 that is lost in the recovery process is reported in this figure. On contact with moist air, SO2 forms sulphuric acid, which contributes to "acid rain" and acidification.